Part 2. MM4XL Tools > 1. Strategic Tools > Brand Mapping > Examples > Example 3.2: brand image maps

Brand Mapping

Example 3.2: brand image maps

Active and passive data combined in the form of preference and awareness data, are particularly well suited to the needs of managers working on product positioning and brand image.

Product positioning is based on target segmentation and brand differentiation, and according to Wind (1981) there are seven alternative bases for positioning a product:

  1. On the product features
  2. On benefits, problem solution, or needs
  3. For specific usage occasions
  4. For user category
  5. Against another product
  6. Product class dissociation
  7. Hybrid bases

In order to work correctly, the positioning statement must first be written down on paper. One rule suggests:

Brand Mapping Software for Marketing Analysis and Segmentation

For example:

Brand Mapping Software for Marketing Analysis and Segmentation

The data for brand image analysis can be gathered with sample surveys. It is related to brand awareness, and it should be both spontaneous and solicited. Spontaneous brand awareness is when a sample of people answer questions like Which brands do you know? and What do you recall about each brand you know? This is also called top of mind. On the other hand, solicited awareness is gathered when the interviewer suggests the interviewed brand name or attributes, and asks for a rating or such like.

In our example we use unsolicited brand awareness data gathered with a panel of doctors, who reported their memories about the last visit of pharmaceutical representatives promoting products for treatment of ulcer and gastritis. The data table used as input to Brand Mapping is shown below, and the map that follows was drawn using the Supplementary data option with zero supplementary columns, and 9 supplementary rows. It must be noticed that the data used for this example comes from two different panels, and this is one of the strengths of Brand Mapping, which allows for virtually any type of data to be utilized.

Brand Mapping Software for Marketing Analysis and Segmentation

We have removed the row labels of the active points (diagnoses) from the map below, so to focus the reading on the relationship between brands and claims.

Brand Mapping Software for Marketing Analysis and Segmentation

Although the above map is of outstanding quality, the first two axes account for 98% of the total variance, the position of the supplementary points should be interpreted using caution. Indeed, the variance displayed by the map refers only to the active points, so the display of the supplementary points in the 2D space may be of reduced value to us. In our example, for instance, the claims located in the upper left region of the map are gray because they are suspected of being poorly represented. The unusually very high or very low coordinate values on the third principal axis (marginal location) suggest their removal from the analysis, or at least to view them with suspicion.

The map shows an outstanding profile for Zant, who owns the eradication of the Helicobacterio Pilori (acute angle), a form of intestinal bacteria. The battle for the mind takes place more aggressively in the left side of the map. Agop is attacking Antra on drug efficacy, and we know from the previous analysis that it is also succeeding.

This map shows what doctors recall that the reps said (solicited memories). If we also had data about unsolicited memories, wed have the means to validate the effectiveness of the communication effort undertaken by the company. Communication is very expensive and if the target prospects do not recall the product and the attributes that the management considers important for success, and wants them to recall, some counter measures must be taken.

Ries and Trout (1982) wrote that positioning is the position one product takes in the target's mind. If we ask our prospects what they know and think of certain products, we may be able to depict very stimulating positioning maps.

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